Skip to main content Skip to navigation



Costa, M. A., Collins, R. E., Anterola, A. M., Cochrane, F. C., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (2003) An in silico assessment of gene function and organization of the phenylpropanoid pathway metabolic networks in Arabidopsis thaliana and limitations thereof. Phytochemistry 64, 1097-1112.

Cochrane, F. C., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (2004) Functional Classification of the Arabidopsis Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase Multigene Family. Part I. Kinetic Characterization of the Four PAL Isoforms. Phytochemistry, (in press, Proteomics Issue).

Anterola, A. M., van Rensburg, H., van Heerden, P. S., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (1999) Multi-site Modulation of Flux during Monolignol Formation in Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 261, 652-657.

Anterola, A. M., Jeon, J.-H., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (2002) Transcriptional Control of Monolignol Biosynthesis in Pinus taeda: Factors Affecting Monolignol Ratios and Carbon Allocation in Phenylpropanoid Metabolism. J. Biol. Chem. 277, 18272-18280.

Anterola, A. M. and Lewis, N. G. (2002) Trends in Lignin Modification: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Effects of Genetic Manipulations/Mutations on Lignification and Vascular Integrity. Phytochemistry 61, 221-294.

Ralph, J., Hatfield, R. D., Piquemal, J., Yahiaoui, N., Pean, M., Lapierre, C. and Boudet, A. M. (1998) NMR characterization of altered lignins extracted from tobacco plants down-regulated for lignification enzymes cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase and cinnamoyl-CoA reductase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95, 12803-12808.

Ralph, J., MacKay, J. J., Hatfield, R. D., O’Malley, D. M., Whetten, R. W. and Sederoff, R. R. (1997) Abnormal lignin in a loblolly pine mutant. Science 277, 235-239.

Boudet, A.-M. (1998) A new view of lignification. Trends in Plant Sciences 3, 67-71.

Lewis, N. G. (1999) A 20th Century Roller Coaster Ride: A Short Account of Lignification. Curr. Opinion Plant Biol. 2, 153-162.

Meyer, K., Shirley, A. M., Cusumano, J. C., Bell-Lelong, D. A. and Chapple, C. (1998) Lignin monomer composition is determined by the expression of a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase in Arabidopsis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95, 6619-6623.

Humphreys, J. M., Hemm, M. R. and Chapple, C. (1999) New routes for lignin biosynthesis defined by biochemical characterization of recombinant ferulate 5-hydroxylase, a multifunctional cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96, 10045-10050.

Franke, R., Humphreys, J. M., Hemm, M. R., Denault, J. W., Ruegger, M. O., Cusumano, J. C. and Chapple, C. (2002) The Arabidopsis REF8 gene encodes the 3-hydroxylase of phenylpropanoid metabolism. The Plant Journal 30, 33-45.

Lee, D., Meyer, K., Chapple, C. and Douglas, C. J. (1997) Antisense suppression of 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase activity in Arabidopsis leads to altered lignin subunit composition. The Plant Cell 9, 1985-1998.

Ehlting, J., Büttner, D., Wang, Q., Douglas, C. J., Somssich, I. E. and Kombrink, E. (1999) Three 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligases in Arabidopsis thaliana represent two evolutionarily divergent classes in angiosperms. The Plant Journal 19, 9-20.

Lawrence, P. K., Bedgar, D. L., Shockey, J. M., Davin, L. B., Browse, J. A. and Lewis, N. G. (2004) Further Classification of the Putative 4-Coumarate CoA Ligase Family in Arabidopsis. Phytochemistry, (in press, Proteomics Issue).

Pakusch, A.-E., Kneusel, R. E. and Matern, U. (1989) S-Adenosyl-L-methionine:trans-caffeoyl-coenzyme A 3-O-methyltransferase from elicitor-treated parsley cell suspension cultures. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 271, 488-494.

Pakusch, A.-E. and Matern, U. (1991) Kinetic characterization of caffeoyl-coenzyme A specific 3-O-methyltransferase from elicited parsley cell suspensions. Plant Physiology 96, 327-330.

Schmitt, D., Pakusch, A.-E. and Matern, U. (1991) Molecular cloning, induction, and taxonomic distribution of caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, an enzyme involved in disease resistance. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 266, 17416-17423.

Inoue, K., Sewalt, V. J. H., Ballance, G. M., Ni, W., Stürzer, C. and Dixon, R. A. (1998) Developmental expression and substrate specificities of alfalfa caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase and caffeoyl coenzyme A 3-O-methyltransferase in relation to lignification. Plant Physiology 117, 761-770.

Shimada, M. (1972) Biochemical studies on bamboo lignin and methoxylation in hardwood and softwood lignins. Wood Research 53, 19-65.

Shimada, M., Fushiki, H. and Higuchi, T. (1973) Mechanism of biochemical formation of the methoxyl groups in softwood and hardwood lignins. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 19, 13-21.

Jaeck, E., Martz, F., Stiefel, V., Fritig, B. and Legrand, M. (1996) Expression of class I O-methyltransferase in healthy and TMV-infected tobacco. Molecular and Plant Microbe Interaction 9, 681-688.

Bugos, R., Chiang, V. and Campbell, W. (1991) cDNA cloning, sequence analysis and seasonal expression of lignin-bispecific caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferance of sspen. Plant Molecular Biology 17, 1203-1215.

Lauvergeat, V., Lacomme, C., Lacombe, E., Lasserre, E., Roby, D. and Grima-Pettenati, J. (2001) Two cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) genes from Arabidopsis thaliana are differentially expressed during development and in response to infection with pathogenic bacteria. Phytochemistry 57, 1187-1195.

Jones, L., Ennos, A. R. and Turner, S. R. (2001) Cloning and characterization of irregular xylem4 (irx4): a severely lignin-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis. The Plant Journal 26, 205-216.

Baucher, M., Chabbert, B., Pilate, G., Van Doorsselaere, J., Tollier, M.-T., Petit-Conil, M., Cornu, D., Monties, B., Van Montagu, M., Inze, D., Jouanin, L. and Boergan, W. (1996) Red Xylem and Higher Lignin Extractability by Down-Regulating a Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Poplar. Plant Physiol. 112, 1479-1490.

Marita, J. M., Ralph, J., Hatfield, R. D. and Chapple, C. (1999) NMR characterization of lignins in Arabidopsis altered in the activity of ferulate 5-hydroxylase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96, 12328-12332.

Franke, R., Hemm, M. R., Denault, J. W., Ruegger, M. O., Humphreys, J. M. and Chapple, C. (2002) Changes in secondary metabolism and deposition of an unusual lignin in the ref8 mutant of arabidopsis. The Plant Journal 30, 47-59.
Knight, M. E., Halpin, C. and Schuch, W. (1992) Identification and characterization of cDNA clones encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase from tobacco. Plant Molecular Biology 19, 793-801.

Halpin, C., Knight, M. E., Foxon, G. A., Campbell, M. M., Boudet, A. M., Boon, J. J., Chabbert, B., Tollier, M.-T. and Schuch, W. (1994) Manipulation of lignin quality by downregulation of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase. The Plant Journal 6, 339-350.

Li, L., Cheng, X., Leshkevich, J., Umezawa, T., Harding, S. and Chiang, V. (2001) The Last Step of Syringyl Monolignol Biosynthesis in Angiosperms Is Regulated by a Novel Gene Encoding Sinapyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase. The Plant Cell 13, 1567-1585.

Kim, S.-J., Kim, M.-R., Bedgar, D. L., Moinuddin, S. G. A., Cardenas, C. L., Davin, L. B., Kang, C.-H. and Lewis, N. G. (2004) Functional Reclassification of the Putative Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD) Multigene Family in Arabidopsis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101, 1455-1460.

Lewis, N. G., Kasahara, H. and Davin, L. B. (2000) Patent: “Aryl Propenal Double Bond Reductase. U.S. Patent Application filed March 27, 2001 (PCT/US01/09775)”, USA.

Davin, L. B., Wang, H.-B., Crowell, A. L., Bedgar, D. L., Martin, D. M., Sarkanen, S. and Lewis, N. G. (1997) Stereoselective Bimolecular Phenoxy Radical Coupling by an Auxiliary (Dirigent) Protein Without an Active Center. Science 275, 362-366.

Gang, D. R., Costa, M. A., Fujita, M., Dinkova-Kostova, A. T., Wang, H.-B., Burlat, V., Martin, W., Sarkanen, S., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (1999) Regiochemical Control of Monolignol Radical Coupling: A New Paradigm for Lignin and Lignan Biosynthesis. Chemistry & Biology 6, 143-151.

Halls, S. C. and Lewis, N. G. (2002) Secondary and Quaternary Structures of the (+)-Pinoresinol Forming Dirigent Protein. Biochemistry 41, 9455-9461.

Halls, S. C. and Lewis, N. G. (2003) Reversed-phase HPLC Lignan Chiral Analysis with Laser Polarimetric Detection. Tetrahedron Assym. 14, 649-658.

Halls, S. C., Kramer, D. M., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (2004) Kinetic Study of Coniferyl Alcohol Radical Binding to the (+)-Pinoresinol Forming Dirigent Protein. Biochemistry, (in press).

Burlat, V., Kwon, M., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (2001) Dirigent Proteins and Dirigent Sites in Lignifying Tissues. Phytochemistry 57, 883-897.

Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (2000) Dirigent Proteins and Dirigent Sites Explain the Mystery of Specificity of Radical Precursor Coupling in Lignan and Lignin Biosynthesis. Plant Physiol. 123, 453-461.

Xia, Z.-Q., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (2000) Dirigent-mediated Podophyllotoxin Biosynthesis in Linum flavum and Podophyllum peltatum. Phytochemistry 55, 537-549.

Wang, C.-Z., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (2001) Stereoselective Phenolic Coupling in Blechnum spicant: Formation of 8-2´ Linked (–)-cis-Blechnic, (–)-trans-Blechnic and (–)-Brainic Acids. J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., 113-114.

Moinuddin, S. G. A., Hishiyama, S., Cho, M.-H., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (2003) Synthesis and Chiral HPLC Analysis of the Dibenzyltetrahydrofuran Lignans, Larreatricins, 8´-epi-Larreatricins, 3,3´-Didemethoxyverrucosins and meso-3,3´-Didemethoxynectandrin B in the Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata): Evidence for Regiospecific Control of Coupling. Org. Biomol. Chem. 1, 2307-2313.

Hwang-Kim, K.-W., Davin, L. B., Franceschi, V. R. and Lewis, N. G. (2004) Gene Expression of the Arabidopsis Sixteen Membered Dirigent Multigene Family. (Manuscript in finalization).

Hwang-Kim, K.-W., Davin, L. B., Franceschi, V. R. and Lewis, N. G. (2004) Beta-Glucuronidase as Reporter Gene. In Arabidopsis Protocols. (Salinas, J. and Sanchez-Serrano, J. J., eds) (Manuscript in preparation).

Kim, M. K., Jeon, J.-H., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (2002) Monolignol Radical-Radical Coupling Networks in Western Red Cedar and Arabidopsis and their Evolutionary Implications. Phytochemistry 61, 311-322.
Kim, M. K., Jeon, J.-H., Fujita, M., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (2002) The western red cedar (Thuja plicata) 8–8´ DIRIGENT family displays diverse expression patterns and conserved monolignol coupling specificity. Plant Mol. Biol. 49, 199-214.

Washington State University